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Mushroom lectins (Agaricus bisporus) separation, characterization, and biological properties in vitro systems"

Author: Elene Davitashvili
Co-authors: Elene Davitashvili, Marine Koshoridze
Keywords: mushrooms lectins, biological properties

The mushroom lectins - biologically active non-immune origin carbohydrate-binding proteins, other than enzymes or antibodies, play an important role in detecting the medicinal properties of the Basidiomycetes class fungi. Basidiomycetes represent an important group of fungi for the industrial production of a nutritionally functional food and different kinds of new pharmaceutical products. Our attention was drawn the Agaricus families (champagne), which is an important and widely distributed food product. Lectines, isolated from different types of mushrooms are distinguished by its anti-cancerous, immune system stimulation effect. The lectin isolated from Agaricus bisporus (ABL) belongs to galactose-specific lectines, a protein that connect to the Thomsen-Friedenreich-antigen. Lectin is associated with high levels of TF-antigen, inhibiting the growth of the rectal and breast cancer cells [Yu L., 1993] and others. Food is used the Ag. bisporus fruiting bodies predominantly the caps. The main part of the foot is dumping, and high concentration of components with medicinal properties was revealed in the lower part of the cap and the lower section of foot. It has been proved that the capability to synthesize lectin [Mikiashvili et al., 2006,2009; Davitashvili et al., 2008,2010,2011] in mushrooms and their carbohydrate-specificity is closely dependent on composition, carbon source, chemical nature of the substrate. We used the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (fruit bodies caps and foots), cultivated in greenhouse (one of the suppliers of Tbilisi supermarket, "White cap" LLC). In contrast to commercial ABL, the lectins, revealed in cap and foot are characterized by the specificity to galactose-lactose and N-acetylglucosamine. The purified lectins (by affinity chromatography) showed the different activity. The highest specific activity exhibited the N-acetyl-glucosamine-specific lectines isolated from agaricus fruit bodies’ caps and foots. Lectines also showed the differens dependence on temperature and pH. The thermostability property characterizes the N-acetylglucosamine-specific (800) of cap and N-acetylglucosamine and lactose-galactose-specific lectins of foots. Some of biological properties of lectins was studied in vitro (bovine liver cells). The testified lectins had no effect on the lipid's oxidative in liver cells (does not appear an increasing of malonedialdehyde). However, lactose-specific lectins isolated from caps revealed the antioxidant effect in the oxidative conditions (in the presence of Fe2+ metal ions) and lactose-galactose-specific lectin from agaricus foots act as prooxidant factor. Lectins induced the activation of superoxidase activity, which results the increase of amount of free hydrogen peroxide and decreasis of catalase activity.

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